护佑脊梁:自查脊椎病

发布时间:2019-09-26 22:10


    80%左右的人不同程度地患有脊椎病,病发的人群数字越来越庞大,年龄越来越小,症状越来越复杂和严重。若想置身其外,难!人的“脊梁柱”只有一个,要想护佑好您的脊椎,有必要学会自查脊椎病,同时,由于绝大多数病症没有手术的必要,作为脊椎病患者,也有必要了解护佑脊椎的理疗方法。
  脊椎病———如何自我治疗
  1.卧床休息在脊椎病发生后的最初几天,患者的自觉症状十分严重。一般初次发作、疼痛剧烈者,可用木板床,上铺厚垫,仰卧位休息;疼痛较轻、病程较长的患者,可不必整日卧床休息,每天可短时间下床活动2~3次,活动时用腰围保护。在卧床休息的同时,可根据病情选择封闭、牵引等其他治疗。
  卧床休息的治疗方法一般适用于下列情况:①初次发作,病程较短。②病期虽较长,但症状较轻。③患者在50岁以上,不参加体力劳动。④患者诊断尚未完全明确。
  2、温热疗法温热治疗能改善局部的血液循环,加强组织代谢,加速组织的再生能力和组织的细胞活力,加速炎症产物及代谢产物的吸收,降低神经末梢的兴奋性,对痉挛的肌肉有松弛作用,所以有减轻疼痛和加速组织恢复的作用。温热疗法的方式有多种:(1)热毛巾。(2)热水袋:将保温性能良好的热水袋灌入热水,包上毛巾,放在疼痛的部位,可以保持较长时间的温度。(3)怀炉。(4)沐浴。
  3.穴位按压穴位按压要求定位准确,尽量大力按压,以能耐受为度。

  腰痛可选择:按压足外踝外的昆仑穴,接着按压下腹部的关元穴,然后沿前臂尺侧的小肠,从小指到肘,从下到上用力按揉和指压,反复7~8次,再从膝到足趾,由上至下,按压膀胱与胆经的穴位,接着再对脊椎两侧进行点穴按揉,此方法对治疗和预防腰痛有效。颈椎病可选择:揉按手指,用一侧手揉按另一侧手指,如捻转的动作,一根接一根,接着用力挟捏拇指与食指跟部的合谷穴,然后用力按揉肘部的曲池与手三里各20~30次;用食指回旋按揉印堂、太阳、百会各20~30次;按压足心处的涌泉穴及足大趾的大敦穴各20~30次。
  脊椎病———如何理疗
  绝大部分脊椎病完全可以用非手术的办法进行治疗,根本没有必要手术,手术只是最后的选择。以下介绍几种理疗法:
  一、方便实用的颈围
  颈围可限制颈部的过度活动,缓解椎间隙内的压力,增加颈部的支撑作用。当颈椎病急性发作,原有疾病快速进行性发展,以及手法复位或手术后的病人,都可以考虑使用颈部围领。对于不同的病情,应选择不同种类的腰围。
  二、不可小看的腰围
  佩戴腰围主要的目的就是制动,腰围作为一种腰背支架,除了可用于腰椎间盘突出症轻型或恢复期的患者,及作为牵引、卧床休息患者的辅助治疗手段之外,还可用于治疗其他腰背部疼痛的疾患。佩戴腰围的时间要适度,要明确短期佩戴腰围的目的是为了长期不用腰围。原则上佩戴腰围的时间为3~6周,最长不超过3个月。
  三、安全有效的牵引
  牵引疗法对脊椎起到固定和制动作用,通过轻重量持续牵引,则可使肌群逐渐放松,解除肌肉痉挛。当实施牵引时,由于脊椎一般均处于正常体位,因而其生理曲线就可逐渐地改善,甚至可以完全恢复正常。在牵引力的作用下,尤其是轻重量的持续牵引,可使患节椎间隙逐渐被牵开,其范围为1~2厘米,通过牵引有利于突出物的还原。早期及较轻病例效果明显。
  徒手牵引法:颈椎徒手牵引的临床价值主要表现为:通过治疗师双手拇指置于预定的患者颈椎棘突,可控制牵引的锥体水平。腰椎徒手牵引不像颈椎徒手牵引一样易于进行。因为此时牵拉的力量首先必须要克服与第3腰椎以下1/2体重相关的摩擦力。徒手牵引一般由专业的物理治疗师实施。 


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